Water Wetting Joint Industry Project (WW-JIP)
Wettability Measurements |
Please contact Luciano Paolinelli for more information on the WW-JIP.
Internal corrosion of oil and gas wells and pipelines made from carbon steel is
associated with the presence of water on the pipeline surface. When the circumference of the pipe is fully coated with oil, corrosion will
not occur. Increased knowledge of water wetting can increase the confidence of the corrosion engineers and operators on the integrity of the
pipeline and can decrease the cost associated with corrosion mitigation.
The factors that contribute to water wetting in pipelines are both hydrodynamical and chemical. Higher oil flow rates and
heavier, more viscous oils will have a less tendency for water wetting, while low oil flow rates, light oils and large diameter pipelines are
associated with a greater tendency for water wetting. Furthermore, surface active components from the oil, either naturally occurring or
added as inhibitors, can alter the wettability of the steel surface, so that it is less likely to be wetted with water, even under less
desirable hydrodynamical circumstances.
The Institute for Corrosion and Multiphase Technology (ICMT) has built
an extensive knowledge of the water wetting phenomena starting in 2004. In the first phases of the project, the emphasis was on two-phase
oil-water flow. In the subsequent phases of the project, the emphasis has been on three-phase, oil-water-gas flow. The introduction of the
third phase (gas) has a tremendous effect on the distribution of liquids on the pipe circumference and has an extensive effect on water wetting.
Knowledge of the wettability of three-phase flow has a special importance for wells both horizontal and vertical as well as flow lines.
Figure 1. The three-phase flow loop is mounted on an inclinable rig, allowing for
multiphase and wettability measurements at various inclinations (0°±90°).
In order to investigate multiphase flows, the ICMT employs a 4" ID inclinable flow rig, which allows for measurements to be
performed at horizontal, inclined or vertical orientation, in both upwards and downwards flows. The phase wetting regime (water wet or oil wet)
is assessed using high frequency impedance probes and/or conductivity probes, which detect the phase in contact with the carbon steel pipe surface
by means of its electrical response. Complimentary measurement techniques include fluid sampling, ER-probes, electrical impedance tomography,
and measurements of changes in the concentration of iron in the water phase, which only occurs if water can wet the pipe surface.
Figure 2. The doughnut cell allows for small scale testing of wettability in two-phase
oil-water flow. Animation courtesy of Dan Li.
A small-scale benchtop apparatus has been developed and tested at the ICMT to simulate pipeline flow. This apparatus is an
annular flume that has been named "Doughnut Cell" and makes it possible to conduct two-phase oil-water flow testing at a much smaller scale
than the flow loop testing. As an example, doughnut cell tests take only about 2 gallons of oil, compared to 850 gallons for the 4" ID flow
loop test. Water wetting in two-phase system can therefore be simulated much quicker and in a much less expensive manner.
- Improved understanding of water wetting and the key factors affecting it.
- Full reports documenting the results, analysis and modeling, outlining future work.
- State-of-the-art mechanistic model of water wetting in two-phase oil-water flow and three-phase oil-water-gas flows.
- A professional stand-alone software containing the water wetting model.
- A database of water wetting and multiphase flow data which can be made available to other software developers under by special agreement
- "A comprehensive model for stability of dispersed oil-water flow in horizontal and inclined pipes", Luciano D. Paolinelli, Chemical Eng. Science 2019.
- "Study of water wetting in oil-water flow in a small-scale annular flume", Taylor Gardner, Luciano D. Paolinelli, Srdjan Nesic, Exp. Thermal & Fluid Science 2019.
- "Study of water wetting and water layer thickness in oil-water flow in horizontal pipes with different wettability", L.D. Paolinelli, A. Rashedi, J. Yao, M. Singer, Chemical Eng. Science 2018.
- "Phase wetting detection and water layer thickness characterization in two-phase oil-water flow using high frequency impedance measurements", L.D. Paolinelli, J. Yao, A. Rashedi, Journal of Petroleum Sci. & Eng. 2017.
- "Characterization of droplet sizes in large scale oil-water flow downstream from a globe valve", L.D. Paolinelli, A. Rashedi, J. Yao, International Journal of Multiphase Flow 2017.
- "Experimental Study of Oil-Water Flow Patterns in a Large Diameter Flow Loop-The Effect on Water Wetting and Corrosion", Kok Eng Kee, Sonja Richter, Marijan Babic, and Srdjan Nesic, Corrosion 2016.
- "How Do Inhibitors Mitigate Corrosion in Oil-Water Two-Phase Flow Beyond Lowering the Corrosion Rate", Chong Li, Sonja Richter, and Srdjan Nesic, Corrosion 2014.
- "Model Compound Study of the Mitigative Effect of Crude Oil on Pipeline Corrosion", F. Ayello, W. Robbins, S. Richter and S. Nesic, Corrosion 2013.
- "Experimental study of water wetting in oil - water two phase flow - Horizontal flow of model oil", Jiyong Cai, Chong Li, Xuanping Tang, Francois Ayello, Sonja Richter, Srdjan Nesic. Chemical Eng. Science 2012.
- "Role of Asphaltenes in Inhibiting Corrosion and Altering the Wettability of the Steel Surface", P. Ajmera, W. Robbins, S. Richter, and S. Nesic. Corrosion 2011.
- "Study of Phase Wetting in Three-Phase Oil-Water-Gas Horizontal Pipe Flow - Recommendations for Corrosion Risk Assessment", Luciano Paolinelli. NACE, Paper No. 11213, 2018.
- "Hydrodynamic and Phase Wetting Criteria to Assess Corrosion Risk in Two-Phase Oil-WaterPipe Flow", Luciano Paolinelli, Srdjan Nesic. NACE, Paper No. 7408, 2016.
- "Flow Patterns and Water Wetting in Gas-Oil-Water Three-phase Flow - A Flow Loop Study", Kok Eng Kee, Marijan Babic, Sonja Richter, Luciano Paolinelli, Wei Li, Srdjan Nesic. NACE, Paper No. 6113, 2015.
- "Flow Patterns and Water Wetting in Oil-Water Two Phase Flow - A Flow Loop Study", Kok Eng Kee, Sonja Richter, Marijan Babic & Srdjan Nesic. NACE, Paper No. 4068, 2014.
- "Categorization of Crude Oils Based on Their Ability to Inhibit Corrosion and Alter the Steel Wettability", Sonja Richte, Marijan Babic, Xuanping Tang, Winston Robbins and Srdjan Nesic. NACE, Paper No. 4247, 2014.
- "How Do Inhibitors Mitigate Corrosion in Oil-Water Two Phase Flow Beyond Lowering the Corrosion Rate", Chong Li, Sonja Richter, and Srdjan Nesic. NACE, Paper No. 2391, 2013.
- "An Improved Model for Water Wetting Prediction in Oil-Water Two-Phase Flow", Xuanping Tang, Sonja Richter, and Srdjan Nesic. NACE, Paper No. 2393, 2013.
- "Evaluation of the Protectiveness of Paraffins for CO2 Corrosion", Yang, S., Robbins, W., Richter, S., Nesic, S., Corrosion/12, NACE, Paper No. C2012-0001323, Houston TX, 2012.
- "Crude Oil Chemistry Effects on Inhibition of Corrosion and Phase Wetting", Francois Ayello, Win Robbins, Sonja Richter, Srdjan Nesic. NACE, Paper No. 11060, 2011.
- "The Role of Asphaltenes in Inhibiting Corrosion and Altering the Wettability of the Steel Surface" Pankaj Ajmera, Win Robbins, Sonja Richter, Srdjan Nesic. NACE, Paper No. 10329, 2010.
- "Effect of Corrosion Inhibitor on Water Wetting & CO2 Corrosion
in an Oil-Water Two Phase System" Chong Li, Sonja Richter and Srdjan Nesic, 17thICC Paper No. 2662, Las Vegas, October 2008.
- "Crude Oil Chemistry Effects on Inhibition of Corrosion and
Phase Wetting" Francois Ayello, Winston Robbins, Sonja Richter and Srdjan Nesic, 17thICC Paper No. 3149, Las Vegas, October 2008.
- "Study of Wettability of Different Steel Surfaces" Xuanping Tang, Sonja Richter and Srdjan Nesic, Paper No. 3109, 17thICC, Las Vegas, October 2008.
- "Determination of Phase Wetting in Oil-Water Pipe Flows," Francois Ayello, Chong Li, Xuanping Tang, Jiyong Cai, Srdjan Nesic, C.Ivan T. Cruz, Jamal N Al-Khamis. NACE, Paper No. 08566, 2008.
- "Effect of oil type on phase wetting transition in oil-water flows," Xuanping Tang, Francois Ayello, Chong Li, Srdjan Nesic, Jiyong Cai, C.Ivan T. Cruz, Jamal N Al-Khamis. NACE, Paper No. 07170, 2007.
- "Investigation on Water Wetting
in Large Diameter Horizontal and Slightly Inclined Oil-Water Pipe Flows," Xuanping Tang, Francois Ayello, Chong Li, Jiyong Cai and Srdjan Nesic, 11th NACE Middle Eastern Corrosion Conference, Bahrain, 2006.
- "Experimental Study on Water Wetting and CO2 Corrosion in
Oil-Water Two-Phase Flow," Cai,J.; Li,C.; Ayello,F.; Tang,X.; Nesic,S.; Cruz,I.; Al-Khamis,J. NACE, paper No. 06595, 2006.
- "Experimental Studies of Water
Wetting in Large Diameter Horizontal Oil-Water Pipe Flows," Jiyong Cai, Srdjan Nesic, Chong Li, Xuanping Tang. SPE Technical Conference and Exhibition, paper No. SPE 95512-PP, 2005.
- "A multiphase flow and internal corrosion prediction model for mild steel pipelines," Nesic,S.; Cai,J.Y.; Lee,K.-L.J. NACE, paper No. 05556, 2005.
- "Modeling of Water Wetting in Oil-Water Pipe Flow," Cai J., Nesic S., NACE, Paper No. 04663, New Orleans, Louisiana, April 2004.